Monday, 24 August 2015

Importance of Science & Technology at Inspire Science Camp Programme

Today's Program started with the Interaction of Prof. (Dr.) G.S. Sodhi with the students. He is the Associate Professor of Chemistry and coordinator of Forensic Science unit at Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Khalsa College of University of Delhi and a leading forensic expert who has developed processes to aid in the retrieval of fingerprints compromised by adverse conditions guided students with his topic “Applications of Chemistry in Mitigating Crime”.  He explained that water, inorganic and organic constituents of sweat may be selectively fixed using silica or charcoal to give a coloured derivative but this technique is limited and cannot be applied to old fingerprints destroyed by nature. Nano particles of alumina (used in chromatography), Fluorescent dye – eosin Y (used in lipsticks, nail polishes), Hydrophobic extract of gawar bean seeds (used as vegetable, cattle feed) actively seek out oil from the smallest fragment and fingerprints can be obtained on absorbent as well as non- absorbent materials. He lucidly explained that adhesive tapes pose a challenge to finger print detection but a technique “Neutron Activation Analysis” gives results for all such fingerprint nuisance. Through photographs of fingerprints of solved cases he highlighted the detection of destroyed fingerprints on moist metallic and polymeric surfaces kept in water for 36 hours, fingerprint marks on revolver and weapons and cases of suicide or assassination. He also gave a brief explanation of the Iron secreted with sweat that combines with reagent based on coordination chemistry. Along with the examples of solved case he lucidly explained the methods involved in detection of fingerprints obtained separately from different surfaces. The students gave overwhelming response and were fascinated by this lecture. Almost every student curiously asked about other chemicals which can be used for detection, fake prints, about crime investigations through fingerprints and how the culprit is captured. His lecture was fascinating as the students became aware of the actual investigations done by the forensic experts on the crime scene.

Prof. Akhil C. Banerjea
The session started with the mesmerizing lecture by Dr. Akhil C. Banerjea, currently a Senior Scientist/Chair of Virology Department at National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, and Fellow of the Indian National Science Academy (INSA) India. He shared his experience with the topic “Genetic Diversity of HIV-1 Genes in North India and Gene Therapeutic approaches”. He explained that HIV-1 enters the host cells using CD4 and chemokine receptor CCR5/CXCR4. An individual with Delta 32 mutation in CCR5 are protective and is being used as a specific anti-HIV-1 antiviral approach.HIV-1 has evolved novel strategies to escape or degrade host restriction factors which ensures virus growth. HIV-1 accessory proteins (Nef, Vpu, Vif, Vpr) have profound effects on HIV-1 pathogenesis. While Nef degrades p53, Vpu stabilizes p53 in a B-TrCP dependent manner. This stabilization correlates with the extent of apoptosis in human T-cells. Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that constitute an essential and evolutionarily conserved mechanism for post-transcriptional gene regulation. Recently, several viral mechanisms for escaping antiviral RNAi has been discovered which includes suppression of RNAi, mutational escape from RNAi and modulation of the cell’s micro RNA (miRNA) profile. Similar to plant and insect viruses, several mammalian viruses encoding RNAi silencing suppressors (RSS) have been described. He explored in detail whether HIV-1 infection-specific outcomes could be influenced by RNAi-mediated effects. Arginine Rich Motif (ARM) of HIV-1 Tat and Rev are extensively studied linear motifs (LMs) that are essential for HIV-1 gene expression. HIV-1 thus can reshape host cell micro RNA profile to its own advantage. The mechanistic elucidation of HIV-host micro RNA interplay will help in further understanding of host pathogen interactions and might help in developing novel biomarkers and therapeutics. HIV-1 gene expression and replication critically depends upon the levels of Tat and Rev. He showed how Rev controls the levels of Tat protein via indirect mechanisms.
Students solved their queries with the questions raised on the difference between HIV-1 and HIV-2, Difference between disease and syndrome and many more such questions.
A lab session was initiated by dividing students into 5 groups. The students were demonstrated various information regarding the laboratory apparatus.
The students participating in the INSPIRE Science camp visited satellite communication lab in the afternoon August  They were first explained the functioning of 3 components of the satellite communication, viz, uplink transmitter, transponder in the satellite and downlink receiver which can be conveniently placed in the laboratory. The Satellite can be placed at an elevated, position if needed. The Satellite Transponder receives signal from Uplink Transmitter and retransmits at different frequencies to a Downlink Receiver. The Uplink and Downlink frequencies are selectable and can have variety of signals such as Video, Audio, Voice, Tone, Data and Telemetry (Temperature and Light intensity). The Operating manual illustrates basic theory and glossary of Satellite Communication terms along with Experiments. Then a live demonstration of as to how communication of audio, video and various other signals through satellite takes place was given. The students showed lot of interest in the lab work and were elated in witnessing communication through Satcom trainer.
CAD LAB: The students were given hands on training in CAD-computer aided design lab about Designing of machine elements, CNC machine tools, robotics,  Panel design and circuit layout, Mapping ,building plans, contour plotting and structural drawing and Interior design and modelling. The students were given explanations on the absolute and polar co-ordinates, angular dimensions and by layer and command lines. The students were informed about the advantages of CAD in brief including the productivity of the designer, improvement of design quality Easier design, calculation and analysis, quicker rate producing drawings, more accuracy of drawings, colour graphics is possible. The students were made familiar with the different AUTOCAD window and their contents.
Visit to Botanical Garden:
Tau Devi Lal Bio-Diversity & Botanical garden is located at Sector 52-A Gurgaon. Many students had seen its entrance but never visited the garden. It was quite foggy and the visibility was at most 30-40 feet. When students reached to the garden there were already many people inside. The garden is well maintained and covers a large area. There are many sections dedicated to different species of plant and tree. There were not many flowers (maybe due to the season) but students saw many varieties of tree. The plant species there made them enthusiastic about Research and development into plant taxonomy and genetics, photochemistry, useful properties, informing selection of plants that can withstand degraded and changing environments (especially important in face of the threats posed by climate change). Education is a strength of botanic gardens that allows them to communicate the importance of conserving plants, reaching out to diverse audiences, and also to communicate how this may be achieved.

The next day of the program started with the enthusiastic lecture of Prof. (Dr.) M. Sengupta, Principal KIIT College of Education, on the topic “Man and Science”. He emphasized on the knowledge of making science more useful to mankind, to make it precisely for benefitting the society. Earlier science was treated as natural philosophy. Later on when science developed it came into the current form. Dr. Sengupta told that if the mind act and think in scientific way then only it will be more useful for the society. He said that earlier it was known as “SantoshamPaarmamSukham” but nowadays it is said that if you are satisfied you cannot progress. For a balanced personality it is required to keep a proper mixing of knowledge and qualities.  Nehru ji said that “Role of Science in India should be to fight poverty, to fight disease, to fight evil thoughts. Our cultural prosperity, our spirituality should be assembled with science.
He related his topic with the saying of Swami Vivekanand “Knowledge is that to see unity in diversity” He further asked students not to take rest till they achieve goals. Science is interesting subject which makes the mind rational. Scientific mind is that which is opened always to the world to accept new ideas. Nowadays world is a family but to stop increasing the number of crimes, scientific temperament is the requirement of today. The injustice, prejudices can be eradicated when we develop scientific temperament. We worship Tulsi and Peepal tree because of its virtues and their medicinal properties. We should develop sustainability. As VinobaBhave said “A true scientific society is one in which houses will be developed of one story not ten”. We should not blindly follow the western countries but should develop our technologies according to our own requirements. He guided the students to think innovatively to develop research in our own country and that our ideas be original keeping the benefit of mankind. In Indian culture we talk about ParamVidya, the higher knowledge which is confined to intellectual processes, which crosses the borders of senses of knowledge and helps to discover one self. Today’s science is known as AparaVidya. Man should have ‘Trans-empirical dimension’ and that is accepted for spiritual development.
Prof. Dr. S.K Aggarwal, Principal KIIT College of Engineering, told students in his Lecture on ‘Green Chemistry’ that science and knowledge is useless if it could not solve our problems. He discussed about the Greenhouse gases and their requirement. He also discussed briefly that there are side effects of these gases and that if there is increased concentration of these gases then these may prove hazardous. He introduced the term green technology. The field of "green technology" encompasses a continuously evolving group of methods and materials, from techniques for generating energy to non-toxic cleaning products. The present expectation is that this field will bring innovation and changes in daily life of similar magnitude to the "information technology" explosion over the last two decades. In these early stages, it is impossible to predict what "green technology" may eventually encompass. Examples of green technology subject areas as
Energy: Perhaps the most urgent issue for green technology, this includes the development of alternative fuels, new means of generating energy and energy efficiency.
Green building: Green building encompasses everything from the choice of building materials to where a building is located.
Environmentally preferred purchasing: This government innovation involves the search for products whose contents and methods of production have the smallest possible impact on the environment, and mandates that these be the preferred products for government purchasing.
Green chemistry: The invention, design and application of chemical products and processes to reduce or to eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
Green nanotechnology: Nanotechnology involves the manipulation of materials at the scale of the nanometer, one billionth of a meter. Some scientists believe that mastery of this subject is forthcoming that will transform the way that everything in the world is manufactured. "Green nanotechnology" is the application of green chemistry and green engineering principles to this field.
After a tea break summary of the Inspire Science Internship camp was given by Dr. S.K. Aggarwal, Principal KIIT College Of Engineering. With this he gave his best wishes to students to obtain scientific pursuits in future.
Valedictory session started at 1.00 p.m. with the valedictory lecture of the chief Guest of today’s function Dr. A. Mukhopadyhay , Scientist G and In charge of INSPIRE camp DST gave his valedictory lecture. He said that It has been a little time of about 6 years after initiation of the Inspire programme but KIIT has well-arranged all the camps since then. He said that DST is Government organization and we have to depend on academic institutions for the implementation of any scheme from paper to frame. The energy of the organization, mentors and DST is now reaping their benefits. He congratulated all the students who got a chance to attend this camp but also suggested them to be down to earth and share their knowledge with those students who could not attend this camp. He also asked students to maintain their integrated format and the unity they showed in the camp, to remain in contact with each other even after the camp is over. He insisted to become a good human being which is very necessary to develop mankind in science. DST nurtures all the intellects and provides a scope to eradicate their confusions. One should continuously ask questions from oneself and try to find solutions in scientific manner. This will lead to a scientific scenario. This programme is only to provide interactive platform in holistic manner. He also said that Forensic is an upcoming science and students should find out their area of interest.
After this the dignitaries released the CD of Inspire Science camp.
Dr. Neelima Kmarah, Registrar KIIT College of Engineering, who has very beautifully explained the childhood life of Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, our former President, who was born on - 15 October 1931 in - Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen “A. P. J.” Abdul Kalam was a scientist and engineer, who served as the President of India from 2002 to 2007. Already a highly accomplished and much respected individual when elected to be the president, Kalam had spent four decades as a scientist and science administrator at several prestigious organizations like the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). Born into a family of humble means in Tamil Nadu, Kalam went on to study aerospace engineering in Madras Institute of Technology. His initial dream was to become a fighter pilot but he failed to qualify for the Indian Air Force. He then started working at the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) as a scientist and was later transferred to the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). Eventually he was appointed as the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Prime Minister and in this position he played a key role in the Pokharan II nuclear tests. He became the President of India in 2002 and was known as the People's President. He left the office after serving one term and became professor of Aerospace Engineering at Anna University and a visiting professor at several other institutions. Dr. Neelima explained his Childhood & Early Life relating the struggle and inquisitiveness which led him to the stairs of success. She said that Abdul Kalam was born as the youngest of five children of a Muslim boat owner named Jainulabudeen and his wife Ashiamma, in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu. His ancestors had once been wealthy traders though his family lost much of its fortunes by the early 20th century. Kalam grew up in humble surroundings and had to take up a job while he was still in school in order to augment his family’s meagre income—he distributed newspapers to help his father in providing for the family. He was a bright young boy, blessed with a thirst for knowledge and was always eager to learn new things. He completed his schooling from Ramanathapuram Schwartz Matriculation School and proceeded to study physics at the Saint Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli, from where he graduated in 1954. Then he studied aerospace engineering in Madras Institute of Technology, graduating in 1960. His childhood ambition was to become a fighter pilot but he narrowly missed achieving his dream.
After completing his studies he joined the Aeronautical Development Establishment of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) as a scientist. One of the first projects he worked on was to design a small helicopter for the Indian Army. He also got the opportunity to work with the renowned space scientist, Vikram Sarabhai as a part of the INCOSPAR committee. However, Kalam was not much satisfied with his career at the DRDO.
Kalam was transferred to the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in 1969 as the project director of India's first Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III). An expandable rocket project on which he had started working independently in 1965 got the government’s approval for expansion in 1969. Over the next several years he developed the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and SLV-III projects, both of which proved to be successful. In the 1970s he also worked on the development of ballistic missiles from the technology of the successful SLV program and directed the projects Project Devil and Project Valiant which were aimed at producing a short-range surface-to-air missile. Even though the projects were discontinued in 1980 without achieving full success, they earned Kalam great respect and admiration from the scientific fraternity.
In 1980s, the government decided to initiate an advanced missile program under his directorship and thus the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) was launched with Kalam as the chief executive. The program which aimed at the research and development of a comprehensive range of missiles started in 1982-83. Under the guidance of Kalam, several missiles including Agni, an intermediate range ballistic missile and Prithvi, the tactical surface-to-surface missile, were developed.
Student feedback:
Mr. Yashvardhanof KV 1 said that we are sparked with the new ideas that are innovative and creative. The camp was full of inspirational lectures of mathematics, chemistry and especially forensic science. Lab sessions were interesting. I wish my heartiest thanks to DST and KIIT College for inviting us in such a supreme environment.
Ms. Puja from VidyaNilkjetan paid thanks to KIIT for being supportive. She said that although she has chosen Medical field but will guide to her friends that they should continue their engineering and make a successful career with KIIT as the labs are well sophisticated and infrastructure is very good. Students are filled with new experiences.
Mr. Dayanidhi from S. N. Sidheshwar remarked that he learnt a lot form the programme. Quad copter and Security system detector were impressive. He also thanked KIIT for providing a platform to join such an enthusiastic camp. He also liked the infrastructure of college.
Ms. Jyoti from Gyaandeep remarked that the inspirational lectures actually inspired us giving a meaning to INSPIRE camp. The camp has made us think about every aspect more scientifically. Dr. Neelima Kamrah’s lecture on chemistry was very interesting.
Ms. Pooja Patel form GSSS said that we have learnt a lot from the lectures and much more other than books. We are motivated towards our goal and came to know the opportunities that one can have. She liked the infrastructure of college and the hospitality the fraternity showed.
Ms. Vipra form GGSSS Sohna said that my confusion is all eradicated about my future and I now know the path to follow. She said that now after joining the camp I am aware of the future. She liked the lab of college and the love that college showed.
Faculty Feedback:
Ms. Richa Singh from Vidya Niketan said it was a nice, educative and informative camp and as interesting as earlier camps. Role of science and health was beautifully explained by Dr. Neelima, scientific approach towards subjects were really interesting. KIIT also has good sophisticated labs.
Ms. Meena form GGSSS Jacobpura congratulated KIIT to introduce a well-defined, well managed and well-arranged programme. The lectures were excellent. The fraternity also showed the enthusiasm that was wonderful. She would suggest her students of Maths branch to join KIIT for engineering.
Ms. Vandana from S.N. Sidheshwar said the camp was motivating, inspiring and our students loved to attend the camp even after there was a function in school. Students have been deliberately inspired by the lectures and every year she would like to be mentor of the students that would be invited for INSPIRE.
Next in series was the distribution of certificates to the students. The students were distributed certificates to the students. They were very excited while receiving the certificates.
Prof. Dr. S.S. Aggarwal, Director General KIIT Group of Institutions presented Vote of Thanks. 

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